Sanjha Morcha

SC maintains status quo on DGMS appointment

New Delhi, May 28The Supreme Court on Monday issued notice on a plea of the Centre challenging the Armed Forces Tribunal (AFT) order restraining it from filling the post of Director General Medical Services (Army).The AFT had quashed the appointment of a Lieutenant General as the Director General Medical Services (DGMS) holding that his selection as the DGMS (Army) was arbitrary and discriminatory. It had also set aside the findings of the Review Promotion Board of Major General Manomoy Ganguly in March 2017 which had not found him sufficiently high in merit for the rank of Lt General.A vacation Bench of Justices L Nageswara Rao and Mohan M Shantanagoudar took note of the appeal of the Ministry of Defence against the AFT order restraining it to fill the post of DGMS (Army) by the officer of its choice.“In the meanwhile, pleadings shall be completed. Status quo, existing as on today, shall remain in force until further orders. Since we are informed that Lt General UK Sharma of the Research and Referral Hospital is officiating as DGMS (Army), he shall continue till the next date of hearing.“Needless to say, in the event of dismissal of the appeal (of the Centre), the respondent (Ganguly) would be considered for appointment to the post of DGMS (Army), without insisting on minimum of one-year service,” the SC said.Attorney General KK Venugopal, appearing for the Ministry of Defence, assailed the AFT order and said the Army worked on “certain principles” and seniority alone cannot be the sole criteria for selection of an officer as the DGMS (Army).Seniority and suitability are to be considered at the time of appointment, Venugopal said, adding, “The post in question is of a nature where extensive experience is must, as the job is to ensure spontaneous medical facility on the war front. Someone without adequate experience cannot be considered.” Advocate Ranjit Kumar, appearing for Major General Manomoy Ganguly, said, “A person who is a junior to me has been appointed. As far as seniority is concerned, there was no dispute. My file was not even sent for consideration.”Earlier, Ganguly had moved the AFT alleging that rules had been flouted in the proceedings of the board and consequently, he had not been approved for the higher rank despite being eligible. He had averred in his petition before the AFT that his non-empanelment for the rank of Lieutenant General in his Review Special Promotion Board in the Army Medical Corps was due to low figurative assessment in the board. — PTI


Highly decorated General dies at 97 Lt Gen Zorawar Bakshi fought Pak wars

Highly decorated General dies at 97

Lt Gen Zorawar Chand Bakshi (retd) 1921-2018

Vijay Mohan

Tribune News Service

Chandigarh, May 24

Lt Gen Zorawar Chand Bakshi (retd), one of India’s most highly decorated generals, is no more. He passed away in New Delhi at of 97.Fondly known as “Zoru” by friends, Lt Gen Bakshi was decorated for gallantry with the Maha Vir Chakra, Vir Chakra, Mention-in-Despatches, besides being awarded the Param Vishisht Seva Medal for distinguished service. Those who knew him said he was a strict disciplinarian who remained an icon and a source of inspiration to the past and present generations of officers.Gen Bakshi hailed from Gulyana village near Rawalpindi in Pakistan, where he was born in 1921. His father Bahadur Bakshi Lal Chand served with the erstwhile British Indian Army and was decorated with the Order of British India.After graduating from Rawalpindi’s Gordon College in 1942, he was commissioned into the Baloch Regiment 1943. His first major engagement was against the Japanese in Burma in World War II, where he was Mentioned-in-Despatches for overcoming a heavily-fortified Japanese position.After the liberation of Burma, he participated in the operations to liberate Malaysia from Japanese control, earning a fast-track promotion to the rank of a Major for his role. After Partition in 1947, he was transferred to 5th Gorkha Rifles of the Indian Army and soon after saw action during the Indo-Pakistan war of 1947-1948, where he was awarded the Vir Chakra in July 1948. In 1949, he received the MacGregor Medal, awarded to Indian armed forces personnel for valuable reconnaissance.In the 1965 war, he was instrumental in the capture of the strategic Haji Pir Pass in the Uri Sector from Pakistan forces, for which he was awarded the Maha Vir Chakra. He was commanding a brigade given the difficult task of capturing Basali, Haji Pir and Kahuta, which was vital for the Uri-Poonch link-up. His citation states that throughout this operation, Brigadier Bakshi remained in the forefront and displayed a high standard of planning and tactical skill, combined with outstanding leadership, determination and camaraderie in sharing the hardships of his troops.In the early 1960s, he led his battalion in a United Nations operation in Congo. In 1969-1970, he took part in counter-insurgency operations in the North-East. During the 1971 Indo-Pak war, he oversaw operations in the crucial Chicken’s Neck area in the Sialkot sector, capturing territory from enemy control. During his 36-year service, he commanded the Second Battalion of 5 GR, 68 Infantry Brigade, 8 and 26 Mountain Divisions and the C Corps at Chandimandir, before retiring in 1979. He also served as the Military Secretary at Army Headquarters.


A civilian CONTRIBUTE FOR NOBLE CAUSE: DONATIONS FOR DEBT RIDDEN officers daughters but NoN from Veterans officers

Uappeal1A very Strange to know that a Civilian from Vishakapatnam deposited a sum of RS 5000/- each in the accounts of the needy and financially helpless Girls but till date non of the Veterans have done anything except exchanding whats app message in groups.

 If we veterans officers cannot even contribute Rs 10000/- but all ready to except donations for their organisation needs to be reviewed. There is need to change our approach and attitude . WE all talk about Govt not taking care of ESM,Widows and their children but not ready to Spare few thousands being officer Veterans. photo (2)

Sanjha Morcha Salute Mr Satish Kumar for depositing amount .The Girls donot have any sorce of Income or anyone to support them to Fight Legal Case against their Bio-logical nor any documents about their father or confirmed address. Father. Deposit slips of the amount IMG-20180516-WA0037

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The Late Maternal Grand father of the Girls was an Arjuna Awardee and VSM Recipient from EME ,Major Sarabjit Singh in 1962 .IMG_20180505_110211 (1)

 

 

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Uappeal1


RETIRED RECENTLY – VETERANS THIS POST IS FOR YOU…..

*ACTIONS BY RECENT RETIREES THEY MUST TAKE AFTER RETIREMENT ASAP*
1. It is a fact of life that we, while in service never bothered about our Retired Phase of Life. We may have been very good professionally Wwith long tails of qualifications, however, are virtually NIX on the issues which bug us all day in and day out during the retired life. During service one had a functional office as well as administrative support which just vanished in thin air, in a short while after one’s farewell to arms.
2. Are you, for sure, aware as to what all forms you filled up and sent to AG’s branch six months before your superannuation. Wasn’t it your Head Clerk who liaised with another unit to copy all these documents from the ones belonging to another recent retiree. Our ignorance would surely lead to many issues which will crop up in a few years. We will then be bash our head here and there to rectify what could have been done easily immediately after retirement. (CONTD)
3. We therefore outline few check points here which have been carved out of our experience of years, kindly act accordingly for the sake of your family. First and fore most open a new diary with sufficient leaves as your Pension Diary for noting down various points including the location of various documents, just in case we are not on the scene any more.
4. Prior to your retirement lot many letters from PCDAs as also AG’s Branch , Service HQs came on various issues. Keep them in a separate file  and keep it at a safe place. Remove all sorts of faltoo papers  from this file, simply retain your papers so sent and the letters received.  Do not keep the Original PPO and the Original Extended AGIF  letters in this file but keep their photo copies in this.
5. The Pension Payment Order (PPO) in Original is most Important it gives the details of your last pay, Grade, pension, family pension etc. Maintain a separate folder for the original documents for future use and keep the same in safe place which is easily reachable and know to your family. Donot laminate the Original PPO. Safe guard the PPO and do not fold it. The PPO has to last yours as well as your spouses life time. No replacement for the original will be available to you. You must keep a separate routine correspondence file where photo copies of the PPO should be kept and used for reference. Do the same for all the Corrg – PPOs you will receive in future.
6. Go through all the boxes in your PPO and understand the meaning of each box. Check following;-
a)   Your Pensioner ID. its a unique number given by the PCDA(Pension).
b)   Check your last emoluments and dates.
c)   See that the pension being given is correct and there is no error.
d)   Qualifying service as recorded in PPO must be correct, any doubt, first read the details in this site under Qualifying Service and if any error is noted, immediately approach the Army HQ and PCDA for correction.
e)   Name and date of birth of your spouse must be as per her supporting ID proofs like Passport, Pan card and the spellings must match completely. Any mistake in this can deny her Family Pension till it is corrected by court orders.
f)   Check Pension Amount Commuted and the residual pension. Note the month after 15 years when full pension will be restored. It will be the same month in which you received your first pension.
g)  In case one retires just at the beginning of any any CPC a new corrg-PPO will be issued in few days as and when CPC is implemented, Keep a note in your pension Diary.
h)   The pension paying agency bank (PDA) and your account number be checked on the PPO, Ensure following is known and done:-
i)  Know the bank CPPC, check from your branch the mailing address phone number and the email ID of your CPC.
ii)  The pension  account must be joint with your spouse. in most cases wives donot bother to operate the same, hence keep a photo copy of the acct opening form where she had put her signatures. Alternatively in your pension diary keep a smaple of  her signatures as record.
iii)   Make barest minimum transactions from this account, Open another account for day to day routine transactions. You will need the passbook entries even after 20 years of your retirement. It is to ensure that your passbook covers larger period before it is closed.
iv)   The pension passbook is very important and must not be loosly kept.
v)   Retain all old Passbooks of pension acct. If need be keep scanned copies in cloud.
vi)  it may also be worthwhile to obtain your year wise statement from the bank even if one has to shell out some money for the same.
vii)  Ensure all nominations are in place as far as your bank acct is concerned.
viii) For retirees after jan 2016 Aadhaar Number should also be mentioned.
7,  Extended Army Group Insurance. The AGI would have retained some money as one time subsciption to give you extended life insurance. It has an expiry date. This is a very important document and must be kept in Original documents folder along with PPO.
8.  Be aware of your pension entitlements from day one and update your self with any changes as they are announced. Please rmeber that neither the PCDA nor the Bank is bothered about your pension. Donot show carelessness in this.
       NOTE :- We have seen many pensioners suffering at the hands f the banks. An ignorant pensioner is NO BECHARA, and don’t be one.
9.   The service HQ would have issued a small service book giving details f your service, retain it in ORIGINAL DOCUMENTs FOLDER.
10.  Income Tax. Ensure you have filed your last ITR with your last ITO and hve obtained the NO DUES Certificate from the ITO. You will be filing your next return at the place where you are settled.
i)   Retain all ITRs and assessments received on line.
ii)  Quickly learn to file your Return on line, its simple donot bank on CAs.
iii) Disability element and the service elements are tax free in case you have disability of min 20%.
iv) In case you are decorated with SM (Gallantry) or above, your pension in Tax free. There are some formalities to be observed so be aware of these.
11.  Ensure nominations for the Life time Arrears of Pension and Platinum Grant (AGIF) are in order and in place. you can read more about them in this site, go through The Index of the Site to reach the required post here.
12. We are sure you have already received your canteen as well as ECHS Cards, do update yourself about your entitlements and note them down in your diary. We have covered ECHS related issues in our blog site for your reference,
13.   Donot get allured by Banks and agents foir investing your money on market related issues, you are likely to be taken for a ride. Do not worry about the interest part it may be less but go for Govt Securities. You must secure your Capital in the long run.
14.  There are likely many legal issues which you must be aware of. The first and foremost is your WILL.  Remember without a WILL from you the spouse will share your assets along with children.
Write down your will on a piece of paper in hand JUST NOW sign it as also get two witnesses to sign as witness to your signatures. Even a WILL in manuscript is valid in court. You can have the same typed etc etc. As per my Lawyer “ALL FOR MY WIFE” is a good enough WILL. Any way you can see the sample WILL on our site. Do not divulge the contents of your WILL to the beneficiaries.  Do not delay it any further. In the absence of a WILL the family is left in total lurch. See that all your property papers are 100% in order and ready for sale or transfer when the need arises.
15.  Keep full control on your Finances and Assets, just do not loosen it during your life time, if you do, in 99% probability, you may find your self on road side or at best in a OLd Age home, at the critical juncture in life. Love your children, help them when in need but let the “MOH MAYA” not overtake your better sense, let them inherit your assets after both of you ae gone.
16.  This compilation is not exhaustive, there are still many more issues which keep cropping, we do endure to update from time to time.
   KEEP YOURSELF UPDATED – On Pension, ECHS, Income Tax, Finances incl Investments, Legal Issues like Property and move able Assets, Your WILL and other documents.   You will find many e-books, pamphlets and documents which we have retained on our site, take time to go through.
      “INFORMATION IS POWER”

 


Pak-based JeM directs its cadres to strengthen ‘jihad’ in Kashmir

Pak-based JeM directs its cadres to strengthen ‘jihad’ in Kashmir

Such statements by JeM from Pakistan have exposed Islamabad’s malicious designs in Jammu and Kashmir. Reuters file

Karachi, May 5

Pakistan-based terror outfit Jaish-e-Mohammed has directed its cadres to step up and intensify its ‘Jihad’ in Jammu and Kashmir.Addressing a gathering at its Markaz known as Beteha Masjid in Karachi, JeM commander Mufti Abdul Rauf Asghar claimed responsibility for the April 26 grenade attack in the Tral township of Pulwama district in Jammu and Kashmir.Rauf said in his speech, “During the ongoing ‘Daura Tafseer’, news of JeM cadres fighting at battlefronts (in J&K) was pouring in. On April 25 JeM cadres were engaged in fighting against the enemy and were killed the day after (April 26). Their funeral processions were being carried out and, meanwhile, another team of JeM launched attack to take revenge of killings of cadres on the previous day.”Such statements by JeM from Pakistan have exposed Islamabad’s malicious designs in Jammu and Kashmir.Rauf motivated cadres and told them not to forget the real motive for and behind ‘Jihad’. He said, “At the battlefront, there is no dearth of ‘Mujahideen’, who have been waiting in queues to enter into J&K to kill the enemy.The Jaish-e-Mohammed has been banned in Pakistan since 2002, but it continues to train terrorists in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir and provides them weapons to create troubles in Jammu and Kashmir.Having maintained close relations with the Taliban and al Qaeda, it has carried out several attacks primarily in Jammu and Kashmir.Rauf has asked its cadres to be mentally and physically ready to join cadres at battlefield. “The war of ‘jihad’ is entering into an extremely dangerous phase, where enemies would be trying to eliminate Mujahideen from well inside their own locations. Time is likely to come when Mujahideen and others will have to take shelter in forests and plan strategy of survival.”From January to April this year, 55 terrorists have been killed by the security forces in the Kashmir Valley. A majority of these terrorists were from Pakistan who crossed the border to create disturbances in Jammu and Kashmir.On several occasions, India has accused Pakistan of sheltering terrorists and providing them open space to wage ‘jihad’ in the Kashmir Valley. ANI

 


Rocket launchers to get thermal sights Will enable troops to detect, destroy enemy targets during night

New Delhi, May 28

The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC), chaired by Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, on Monday approved the procurement of equipment valued at over Rs 6,900 crore, which includes Thermal Imaging (TI) Night Sights for the Rocket Launcher for accurate targeting of enemy bunkers even in complete darkness.The thermal imaging night sights used by the Army and the Air Force will be bought through established Indian vendors, in effort to boost indegenisation, the Defence Ministry said in a statement.“The TI sight for 84mm RL will be used by troops in operations to facilitate accurate and continuous engagement of moving and static enemy targets and destruction of field fortifications (bunkers) during hours of complete darkness,” the statement said. The night sight will enable troops to detect and recognise enemy tanks and soldiers’ movement during night and engage them with greater efficiency.Furthermore, the effect of camouflage and concealment will be drastically reduced as RL detachments will be able to ascertain location of enemy taking cover behind foliage and thin-walled constructions with greater ease.The DAC also accorded approval for undertaking design and development of the long-range dual band Infrared Imaging Search and Track System (IRST) for SU-30 MKI aircraft and subsequently, for procurement of at least 100 IRSTs.The system will be able to operate in day and night conditions and substantially enhance the capabilities of the aircraft.“In the last eight months alone, the DAC has pursued modernisation of the armed forces with greater vigour and has accorded major thrust on indigenisation. Approvals for procurement of equipment valued at Rs 43,844 crore, have been accorded, of which, Rs 32,253 crore would be Made-in-India, through the indigenous route,” the statement added. — PTI

DAC clears purchase worth Rs 6,900 cr

  • The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) has cleared procurement of equipment worth over Rs 6,900 crore
  • This includes long-range dual band Infrared Imaging Search and Track System for SU-30 MKI. At least 100 will be bought after they are designed and developed
  • The system will allow operation in day and night conditions and enhance capabilities of the aircraft

The Kishanganga imbroglio by b Lt-Gen Pramod Grover (retd)

The Kishanganga Hydroelectric Project is likely to be inaugurated by the PM today. The project was completed 30 years after its conception. Lessons need to be drawn from Pakistan’s obstructionist attitude despite India’s benevolence in sharing of Indus river waters.

The Kishanganga imbroglio

Kishanganga Hydroelectric Power Project Dam site in Gurez valley of Bandipora district in north Kashmir. Tribune photo

Lt-Gen Pramod Grover (retd)

Widely accepted as one of the most sophisticated and comprehensive international water treaties, the Indus Waters Treaty stands out as the world’s most generous water-sharing arrangement by far, in terms of both the sharing ratio (80.52 per cent of the aggregate water flows in the Indus system reserved for Pakistan) and the total volume of basin waters for the downstream state. Even the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee Report (2011) refers to this pact as “the world’s most successful water treaty”.The implementation of the provisions of the treaty, however, has not been without intractable divergences and consistent tension between the two parties. Despite India’s generosity in the sharing of the Indus river waters, Pakistan has consistently adopted an obstructionist tactics’ strategy since 1977, raising issues regarding run-of-river projects under construction on the western rivers by India. A case in point is the Kishanganga Hydroelectric Project which is all set to be dedicated to the nation nearly three decades after its conception.The Kishanganga Hydroelectric Project in Kashmir’s Gurez Valley is a run-of-the-river project that includes a 37-metre high concrete rock fill dam across the Kishanganga river, located just before it flows across the Line of Control (LoC) into Pakistan-occupied Kashmir. It will divert the water to an underground powerhouse through a 23.25-km tunnel and will generate 1,713 million units of power per annum, of which the state of Jammu and Kashmir will be provided 12 per cent.In the early nineties, India had informed Pakistan of its intentions to construct the Kishanganga Hydroelectric Project. After a gap of almost three decades, this 330-MW power project worth Rs 5,750 crore has been commissioned in stages during March-April this year and is likely to be inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi during the third week of May.So, what are the reasons for such an unprecedented delay to a relatively small hydroelectric project?The prime reasons for this have been Pakistan’s consistent efforts to raise objections to the execution of this project, each time requiring India to clarify its position, a long-drawn process, leading every time to further validation of India’s stand. The objections have been rather arbitrary, belying the delay tactics approach of Pakistan for any development in the area. The main objections have been that inter-tributary diversions were barred as per the provisions of the Indus Water Treaty and that existing Pakistani uses must be protected as execution of this project  would deprive Pakistan of 27 per cent of the river’s natural flows, thereby adversely affecting 1,33,000 ha of irrigated area in the Neelum valley. Pakistan also raised objections relating to certain design features.In response, India clarifying its position informed Pakistan that the Kishanganga project on the LoC was a run-of-the-river scheme. The Indus Water Treaty categorically permitted inter-tributary diversion as per Article III (2) and Para 15 (iii) of Annexure D. The treaty stipulated that “where a plant is located on a tributary of the Jhelum of which Pakistan has an agricultural use or hydro-electric use, the water released below the plant may be delivered, if necessary, into another tributary but only to the extent that the then existing agricultural use or hydro-electric use by Pakistan on the former tributary would not be adversely affected”, a clause respected and adhered to by India.Further, in 2010, Pakistan took the matter to the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague, which stayed the project for three years. But in 2013, the court ruled that the Kishanganga was “a run-of-the-river plant within the meaning of the Indus Waters Treaty and that India may accordingly divert water from the Kishanganga (Neelum River) for power generation.” The court, however, also ruled that India was under an obligation to “construct and operate” the Kishanganga dam in such a way that it “maintains a minimum flow of water in the Kishanganga/Neelum River.” The minimum flow was fixed at 9 cumecs (318 cusecs). India, duly adhering to the observation, voluntarily declared that it was lowering the height of the dam from the planned 98 m to 37m and resumed construction in full swing.In August 2016, concerned about the performance of their under-construction Neelum-Jhelum hydro station (900 MW) at Nowshera, Pakistan approached the World Bank, the facilitator of the treaty, to prove that India was violating the treaty as well as the court’s verdict. Pakistan requested the World Bank to appoint a court of arbitration to review the design of the Kishanganga project.India rejected the suggestion on the grounds that Pakistan’s objections were technical in nature and that the matter should be decided by a neutral expert. Pakistan disagreed, arguing that a decision by a technical expert was non-binding and India would be under no obligation to implement the expert’s recommendation. This issue continues to be the focus of several interactions lately under the aegis of the World Bank but no decision has been arrived at since Pakistan’s representation lacks merit and substance. It is thus quite apparent that Pakistan has, once again, lost one more diplomatic battle.However, for India, there is a need to draw a lesson. It is apparent that a think tank in Pakistan has been consistently resisting the construction of any hydropower project on the western rivers even though all projects by India are the run-of-the-river projects and in tune with the treaty stipulations. India’s stance has, in the past, been accepted by the Neutral Expert in case of Baglihar and the Court of Arbitration in case of Kishanganga.Taking the benefit of the lessons learnt, there is need to expedite construction/completion of various projects in the pipeline on priority and draw full benefits entitled under the provisions of the treaty for economic growth.


Cop killed, another injured in militant attack in Anantnag

Cop killed, another injured in militant attack in Anantnag

Suhail A Shah

Bijbehara, May 15

A policeman was killed and another injured after militants opened fire at a police vehicle at Bijbehara town of Anantnag district on Tuesday.The slain cop has been identified as Special Police Officer (SPO) Bilal Ahmad Shah of Verinag in Anantnag district while the injured has been identified as Head Constable Abdul Rasheed Munshi of the Ganderbal area. The shootout took place at about 4 pm along the Srinagar-Anantnag highway in the Pazalpora area. According to police reports, the militants targeted the vehicle (Tata Sumo) of the Bijbehara police station.“The militants opened fire at the vehicle near Pazalpora. It was retaliated by policemen but unfortunately two of our men were seriously injured,” a police officer said, adding that the militants managed to flee from the spot. The injured policemen were rushed to the nearby Sub-District Hospital, Bijbehara, where doctors declared SPO Bilal Ahmad dead. “The Head Constable suffered bullet wounds on his legs. He has been referred to Bone and Joints Hospital in Srinagar. He is out of danger,” Medical Superintendent Showkat said. Later, a wreath-laying ceremony was held for the slain SPO at District Police Lines, Anantnag. Following the shootout, the security forces rushed to the area and a cordon and search operation was launched.


US navy veteran sentenced to life for killing Indian techie

US navy veteran sentenced to life for killing Indian techie

Srinivas Kuchibhotla. Photo courtesy: gofundme.com

Washington, May 5

A US Navy veteran was sentenced to life imprisonment for killing Indian engineer Srinivas Kuchibhotla in a racially motivated hate crime at a bar in Kansas City last year.A federal judge in Kansas sentenced Adam Purinton to nearly 78 years in prison as part of a plea agreement reached in March. Purinton would not be eligible for parole until after he turns 100, KSHB reported.In March this year, Purinton, 52, had pleaded guilty to the charges of murdering Kuchibhotla.Purinton was charged with first-degree murder of Kuchibhotla, 32, and two counts of attempted first-degree murder in the shootings of his friend, Alok Madasani, and a bystander, who chased Purinton after he fled the Austin’s Bar and Grill in Olathe city on February 22 last year.In addition to the state charges, Purinton faces prosecution in federal court. The US Attorney’s Office in Kansas filed hate crime charges against Purinton last June.Purinton, yelled, “Get out of my country,” before shooting Kuchibhotla, who later died from injuries sustained in the attack.Kuchibhotla is survived by his wife Sunayana Dumala, who welcomed the court’s decision.“Today’s sentencing in the murder of my husband will not bring back my Srinu, but it sends a strong message that hate is never acceptable,” Dumala said in a statement.“I want to thank the District Attorney’s office and the Olathe police for their efforts to bring this man to justice,” she said.Kuchibhotla hailed from Hyderabad. He had a master’s degree in electrical and electronics engineering from the University of Texas at El Paso. He earned his bachelor’s degree from the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University in Hyderabad. PTI